The spikes are composed of whorls or rings of flowers, each composed of six to ten flowers; the lower whorls becoming more distant from each other. 13(9):105-111. Fusarium solani – wilt You can also take summer cuttings of many other plants, including rosemary, roses and penstemons. Weed control is especially important during the first two years of growth as the plants become established. ... Propagation The best time to take cuttings from lavender plants is right after they have ... Royal Velvet 24-36" 24" 5 Dk. English lavender varieties are better suited for dried flower production than Lavandin varieties. This is NOT the way to efficiently prune lavender! One of the easiest ways to propagate lavender is by taking cuttings - and the best time to take cuttings is after flowering. 1991. Flowering is generally from mid to late June to early July. plants grown from seed are variable in growth habit, colour and essential oil composition. According to Tom DeBaggio, it self sows so prolifically that it can be treated as an annual. Her Ph.D. research was focused on black cohosh. Vegetable Gardening — North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook, Vernon G. James Research & Extension Center, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, Weed Management in Nurseries, Landscapes & Christmas Trees. 51-57. Spanish lavenders tolerate more acid soils than other lavenders but are not hardy and need to be treated as annuals and are generally grown as ornamentals. Want to see which lists are available? This is the simplest method of propagation, although the least efficient in terms of time and number of regenerants per plant. In contrast, Dr. Art Tucker, of the University of Delaware, advises taking cuttings in the fall before the first freeze (August-Nov.) when stems are semi-hardened. Lavender can be grown in backyards, pots/containers as well. 1999 was dubbed the “Year of Lavender”; as a result there was an increased demand for information and literature concerning all aspects associated with lavender production. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. Lavender oil contains up to 40% linalyl acetate and 30% linalol. The 1/4 inch wide, purple, oblong to oval-shaped bracts are up to 1/2 inch in length with 3/8-inch dark purple flowers. Send Explanation. Subscribe By Email chevron_right. Another method of spacing is to plant 18 inches apart each way for the first year of growth, then to remove every other plant in the second year resulting in 36 inch spacing which produces optimal flower and essential oil yields. HortScience. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture 23(2):167-178. It is widely cultivated for nursery production and also grown commercially as a source of essential oil. Softwood cuttings from lavender root in two to four weeks, and hardwood cuttings take a little longer. Ideal Soil For Lavender Farm. 1992. Choose non-flowered shoots of this year’s growth and ensure that they’re free from pests and disease. Other constituents of the oil are cineol, pinene, limonene, geraniol, borneol and some tannin. – wilt When choosing a lavender cultivar the first decision is to distinguish between use for essential oil production, cut flower production, or ornamental use. The highest percentage of rooting was obtained from 8-10 cm long, 1-year-old cuttings in open beds in October-November (Boyadzhieva et al., 1977). Bioactivity of Lamiaceae plants against insects. Raev, R., Jordanov, R., Zheljazkov, V., Rabotyagov, V., Craker, L., Nolan, L., Shetty, K. 1996. The traditional uses of lavender range from use as a perfume to a antimicrobial agent. Its excellent fragrance and concentrations of essential oil make it suitable for commercial harvest. This plant is a 2-3 foot shrub with fragrant, lilac-colored spikes blooming in midsummer. Lavender was used as an ingredient in smelling salts and was used to disinfect wounds during wartime. The leaves are opposite, sessile, entire, blunt and linear or lance-shaped. L. latifolia oil has alpha-pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, sabinene, betamyrcene, 1,8-cineole (up to 33%), beta-cymene, linaloyl oxide, camphor (~5%), and linalool (up to 25%), among other constituents. 663-666. As for varieties, I suggest you try many of them and see which ones grow best on your farm or garden, and which have the colors, fragrances, and forms you desire. Lavender will grow in North Carolina, but it is not the ideal place for it. All three adapt well to container growing but are not widely cultivated in the U.S. L. canariensis, native to the Canary Islands, has feathery foliage with dark-blue flower spikes with a turpentine scent. In China, Lavender is used in a cure-all medicinal oil called White Flower Oil. Plant all species in a protected south facing location with well-drained soil within a pH range of 6.4-8.3. G. Doyle’, which he calls dark supreme lavender, and ‘Susan Belsinger.’. Lavandin varieties (Lavendula x intermedia) produce both the highest yields of flowers and highest concentrations of essential oil per acre. Douglas, J. Yale Medical Library. The following information was compiled from a literature review in 1999, which will hopefully provide helpful information sources to the interested grower. Lavender essential oil. Lavender Propagation Propagation by cuttings results in uniform plants, and is the most common commercial method. Armillaria mellea ­ root rot A hybrid cross between L. dentata and L. latifolia, is known as Lavandula x allardii, or giant lavender. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture. L. angustifolia, L. x intermedia, L. latifolia, and L. stoeches all contain the antioxidant rosmarinic acid (Foster, 1993). Tsachev, S., Zlatev, S., Neshev, M. 1976. Of the various blue cultivars, Irene Doyle (Tucker, 1984) is considered unique in its ability to flower twice. L. latifolia, or Spike Lavender, is one of the species that makes up the lavandin hybrid but is not hardy, being a native of the Mediterranean. In New Crops. A U-shaped piece of wire can be used to hold the stem section firmly in place. The Greek naturalist, Dioscorides, praised the medicinal attributes of Lavender in the first century A.D. Keep rooting sections moist and expect transferable plants within 2 weeks to 2 months depending on environmental conditions (Oliver, 1996). During the Middle ages it was considered an herb of love and was used as an aphrodisiac. Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms This publication is intended for a beginning lavender grower with some horticultural experience. Leaves are 1 1/4 inch long; linear-oblong with rounded teeth at margins, grayish in color and covered with soft fuzz. English lavenders grow poorly in the hot, humid southeast, while lavandins can grow and thrive as far south as Florida. Garden herbs as hosts for Southern Root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita ­ (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, race 3 ]. If damaged plants are present, remove and destroy any infected plant material and avoid replanting with susceptible varieties. Few plants can match the all-around versatility of lavender. 113-6. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. Tissue culture regenerants can produce disease-free, genetically identical plants from parent plants exhibiting desirable traits. The most common disease problem with lavender is wilt. Prices can range from $10 to $15 per pound. 426:561-572. L. angustifolia oil contains linalyl acetate (up to 40%), linalool (~25%), geraniol and its esters. Tissue culture protocols are generally cost prohibitive to small-scale growers because of the specialized sterile laboratory equipment required. English lavender (L. angustifolia) cultivars are best for dried flower purposes because the flowers persist on the stems when dry, whereas Lavandin cultivars are easily separated from the stem and are better suited for essential oil and potpourri purposes. An Austrian study provided evidence of sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Hardy Lavenders. Studies on the vegetative propagation of lavender. International symposium on medicinal and aromatic plants, Amherst, MA (1995). Essential oils are accumulated in the flowers and flower stalks. Linalol is a terpene alcohol that is non-toxic to humans, yet naturally antimicrobial. 165. p.235. I have shared my propagation addiction before, Lilacs, Roses, Clematis, Delphiniums and Geraniums, to name a few. Rasteniev dni-Nauki. Lavender-blue flowered cultivars include Backhouse Purple, Bowles Early, Compacta, Folgate, Graves, Gray Lady, Gwendolyn Anley, Irene Doyle, and Maillette. Lavandin is a sterile hybrid and must be vegetatively propagated. 10(1)35-42. She recommends protecting plants from both summer and winter winds to prevent damage to the spikes. Frontier Natural Products Coop. Peter Cole, London. This heavy pruning stimulates growth from the base of the plant. Wait several days between tugs, as you can damage tender young roots by tugging on them too often. Phoma lavendulae – stem blight Cuscuta epithymum– Dodder vine – (parasitic flowering plant) Once rooted, cut the new plants from the mother plants and transfer to individual pots. Commercial potting soils have plenty of nutrients to maintain the plants without supplemental feedings. The name “lavender” comes from the Latin verb lavare “to wash” or “to bathe.” There are approximately 20 species of lavender with hundreds of various genotypes differentiated by variations ranging from growth form to chemical composition of essential oil. Furthermore, you can use tissue culture for the mass propagation of lavender from selected mother plants. Plants grown from seed are variable in growth habit, color, and essential oil composition and are unsuitable for commercial harvesting. Blossoms drain the plant of energy, and it’s unlikely that a stem will have the resources to form good roots if it is trying to bloom. pp. The maximum value of essential oil was obtained with S as a 1% foliar application (Hussein et al., 1996). When full grown, leaves become greener and extend up to 2 1/2 in long, with scattered hairs above, smooth or finely downy beneath, with the margins only slightly revolute. Lavandins produce large, long stemmed flowers which are slightly gray in color while English lavender (Lavendula angustifolia) varieties produce shorter-stemmed flowers with a blue color when dried. Describe commercial lavender growing operations. Typically, lavandin varieties bloom 3-4 weeks later than English lavender and have significantly higher essential oil concentrations. L. lanata, wooly lavander, is an exceptional potpourri plant because of its balsam-lavender fragrance. In order to discourage fungal pathogens, good air circulation is advised and can be achieved by spacing plants 2-3 feet apart and trimming the lower branches throughout the growing season. Most lavenders are hardy to USDA zones 5 to 9, but if you live in an area where the winter temperatures get below about -10 degrees F, consider taking some cuttings of your favorite plants in early fall and growing them indoors over the winter in case your outdoor plants freeze out. Read on to learn more. There are also various questions to address when choosing a variety, such as whether the plant is being chosen for essential oil production, cut flower production, or dried ornamental use. Cuttings are placed in trays being careful not to allow leaves to touch soil surfaces, which can result in burning the leaves. This manual from the University of Maine is a more in-depth … Rooting Viburnum Cuttings: How To Propagate Viburnum From Cuttings, Propagating With Semi-Hardwood Cuttings: How To Do a Snap Test For Semi-Hardwood Cuttings, What Is Vermiculite: Tips On Using Vermiculite Growing Medium, Planting A Giving Garden: Food Bank Garden Ideas, Giving To Food Deserts – How To Donate To Food Deserts, December To-Do List – What To Do In December Gardens, Cotton Grass Info – Facts About Cotton Grass In The Landscape, Identifying Flowers: Learn About Flower Types And Inflorescences, Growing Dogtooth Violets: Learn About Dogtooth Violet Trout Lily, Cold Tolerance Of Avocado: Learn About Frost Tolerant Avocado Trees, Recipes From The Garden: Pressure Cooking Root Vegetables, Gratitude For The Garden – Being Grateful For Each Growing Season, 7 Reasons To Do Your Garden Shopping Locally, Thankful Beyond Words – What Represents Gratefulness In My Garden. The commercial cultivation of Lavender on large scale can fetch crores of rupees. www.med.yale.edu/library/historical/culpeper/culpeper.htm. Press the stem into the indention and cover the bare section with moist soil or a sphagnum moss and perlite combination. Lavender was a favorite ingredient in herbal baths of both Greeks and Romans. Foster, S. 1993. Flower stalks are cut just under the first pair of leaves. The positive influence of foliar applications of sulfur (1%) and phosphorus (1%) on the yields, volatile oil and minerals of lavender was studied during 2 successive seasons in Egypt. SEEDS. English lavender varieties prefer chalky soils, whereas the lavandin varieties require slightly more acidic soils. NC State Extension is the largest outreach program at NC State University. In the book “A Modern Herbal” published in 1931, Mrs. M. Grieve suggests taking cuttings from young wood in fall or spring by pulling a healthy branch downward so that a piece of the older wood (heel) is retained. Other historical uses include embalming corpses, curing animals of lice, taming lions and tigers, repelling mosquitoes, snuff flavoring, and as an ingredient in special lacquers and varnishes. XIV(6):27-29. The common narrow-leafed variety grows 1-3 ft high with a short but irregular crooked, much-branched stem, covered with a yellowish-gray bark, which comes off in flakes and very numerous erect straight, broom-like, slender, bluntly quadrangular branches, finely pubescent with stellate hairs. Commercial Lavender Planting Growing Commercial Lavender in the Midwest Peaceful Acres Lavender Farm is located in growing Zone 5. Propagation of lavender from cuttings is easy and more likely to be successful than growing the plants from seeds. Culpeper (1652) in his book, The English Physitian, wrote for his description of lavender simply, “This is so well known, being an Inhabitant in almost every Garden, that it needeth no Description.”. N.C. All you’ll need is an established lavender plant, time, and patience. Under these conditions root growth is achieved by 14 days. SEEDS. It has ovate-rhombic bracts like English lavender but the width to length ratio is 1.33 to 3.00 and bracteoles are always 1-4 mm long. Currently, the majority of lavender products are utilized for essential oil production and for their aromatic properties. In a 1992 study on the micropropagation of Lavenders and Lavandins, a tissue culture protocol was established for the mass propagation of disease free plantlets from commercial hybrid stock plants. It needs very well-drained soil, so do whatever you can to provide that and definitely build raised beds. Pile up 2-3 inches of bark under the stem section and make a shallow depression in the top of the pile. Can you ever have too many lavender plants? For commercial production it is strongly recommended to set up trial areas of approximately 200 plants each with selected cultivars to determine quality and yields before planting on a large scale. Foliar applications had positive effects on plant height (P 1%) and dry weight (S 1% + P 1%) of herb. Check to see if the stems have roots by giving them a gentle tug. Oliver, P. 1996. Current research from the Netherlands has proven that essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia suppress sprouting in potato tubers and are also antimicrobial. Closer to home Thomas DeBaggio successfully propagates lavender from stem tip cuttings. L. multifida, (fern-leaf lavender), L. pinnata, and L. canariensis are characterized by their lacy, finely divided fern-like leaves with solitary spikes in threes (trident-form). Martini, A. The Business of Herbs. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Commercial lavender plantations are usually established by planting in single rows spaced appropriately to allow tractor access. This is a statewide program but focuses on the needs of the small and medium size farms that make up the agricultural landscape of western North Carolina, and new farmers, hobby farmers, organic gardeners, and specialty crop producers across the eastern U.S. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. Propagation and Culture of Lavenders as practiced by Tomas J. DeBaggio owner of T. DeBaggio Herbs in Arlington, VA. Extension Publication, Alternative Agriculture, Virginia State University. If a good cover crop had been grown or manure was added to the field before planting, fertilization may not be necessary for several years. Crop & Food Research. For optimal ester levels, flowers are harvested starting in the second year between early blossom and maximum bloom stages early in the day before full sun conditions. propagation by seed is not recommended for commercial lavender production. While softwood cuttings are only available in spring, you can take hardwood cuttings in spring or fall. Lavender can produce well with an annual rainfall range of 300 to 1400 mm per year. Yield and quality of lavender in relation to foliar application of sulphur and phosphorus. Propagating lavender from cuttings is also fairly easy to do and you can use the same method for other plants like … If you are starting a large-scale lavender farm, you must have a proper marketing planning. The best type of cutting to use depends on the type of lavender and the time of year. The best yields of essential oil were observed following application of ammonium chloride (N source) at 44 lb/ acre (El-Sherbany et al. Gibbs Smith Publisher, Utah. With cuttings, you can rest assured that your new plants will be exactly like the parent plants. Hardwood is thicker than softwood and resists bending. 2. It is characterized by large gray leaves with flowers ranging from lavender-blue to deep purple. In a study on the vegetative propagation of lavender by rooting of stem sections, 1 year old wood, various mixed wood, and three-year-old wood stem sections were compared. In a study in Europe (Boyadzhieva et al., 1977), optimal rooting was achieved with 8-10 cm long cuttings from 1-year-old plantings set in open beds in October and November. Propagating lavender from cuttings is an easy and fun way to get more. However, only 3 species are popular for commercial lavender farming. English Lavender, Lavendula angustifolia, is the most widely cultivated species (synonyms – L. vera, L. latifola, L. officinalis, L. spica, L. delphinensis). www.crop.cri.nz/broadshe/lavender.htm. Young plants should be set out in early spring in rows 2 feet apart with one foot spacing between plants. Rooting hormone helps prevent the tip from rotting and encourages quick, strong root development, but lavender roots well without it. or so below the surface. Working hand-in-hand with our partners at N.C. A&T and 101 local governments, we conduct groundbreaking research that addresses real-world issues in communities across the state. Medicinal uses include treatment of headache, hysteria, nervous palpitations, hoarseness, palsy, toothaches, sore joints, apoplexy, colic, coughs, and rumbling digestive systems. 1992. Every fall, we propagate thousands of organic lavender plants from cuttings. According to Tucker and Hensen (1985) lavenders can be distinguished by their bracts; those of L. angustifolia are ovate-rhombic in outline, with a length/width ratio of 0.83 to 2.20 with bracteoles absent or up to 2.5 mm long. DeBaggio, T., 1989. Culpeper, N. 1652. Unpublished Material. Lavender is mainly propagated by cuttings, layering, and division of roots. In addition, he found that the sand increased flower and oil production when compared to a control group of plants which were not mulched. Learn More About NC State Extension, We have several topic based e-mail newsletters that are sent out periodically when we have new information to share. If seed… According to a reliable source, Provence (Lavandula x intermedia) and Grosso (Lavandula x intermedia) do well in western NC and there is a relatively new cultivar called Phenomenal (Lavandula x intermedia) that is hardy to zone 4. Flowers are produced in terminating one-half-inch-long spikes from the young shoots, on long stems. Studies on the reconstruction of lavender plantings to wide row spacing in regard to mechanized cultivation and harvest Rastenievud. Center-Home Page. 1960. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Crops Research Division. In addition, because most lavender varieties are clones, vegetative propagation (cuttings, layerings, and division of roots) is highly recommended to retain desirable traits. It requires good drainage and prefers a warm, well-drained loam with a slope to the south or southwest. What separates NC State University from other schools? 1996 www.frontiercoop.com/aromatherapy/esso.n11.html. CUTTINGS. The flowers themselves are very shortly stalked, three to five together in the axils of rhomboidal, brown, thin, dry bracts. Mechanical cultivation and use of mulch are the primary methods of control. 1997). Vokou, D., Vareltizidou, S., Katinakis, P. 1993. Gibbs Smith Publisher, Utah. Commercial lavandin oil- and flower- producing cultivars include, Grosso, Abrialii, Super, Standard, Maime Epis. Others report that plants may be harvested up to 30 years. Set the cutting aside while you prepare the container. This cultivar was developed by the late Ted Torrey, head plant breeder for W. Atlee Burpee & Company. Growing dozens of lavender plants in the backyard of the house can make an individual earn a high profit. Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz, L., Jaeger, W., Dietrich, H., Plank, C., Karamat, E. 1991. Hardiest plants are English lavender (L. angustifolia), Lavandin (L. x intermedia) and spike lavender (L. spica, or L. latifolia). Remove the plastic bag when the cutting has roots. It is characterized by its irregularly shaped, toothed leaves and unusual gray-green foliage. It was also believed that a sprinkle of lavender water on the head of a loved one would keep the wearer chaste. The results indicated that flaming with this machine significantly reduced weeds but that the lavender plants were susceptible to damage if sufficient care was not taken (Martini, 1996). Fusarium – root rot Prepare the site by mixing compost or peat moss with the top four inches of soil and preparing a raised bed. Plants should be thinned to 24-36 inches apart with rows 30 to 36 inches apart. Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA). Sign up for our newsletter. 1995. Aoyama, E., Ono, E., Furlan, M. 1996. Rodale’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs. Horticultural cultivars include Dutch, Grappenhall, Hidcote Giant, Old English, Provence, Seal, and Silver Gray. Due to its insecticidal properties, lavender was strewn over floors in castles and sickrooms as a disinfectant and deodorant. Lavender propagation by Lavender cuttings is easy to do if you have a large Lavender already growing in your garden. Propagation by seed is slow (six months to transplant size) and germination rates are low and sporadic. Boyadzhieva, B., Zlatev, S., Koseva, D., Decheva, R. 1977. Lavender: Lavandula angustifolia. 24(1):7-17. Phytophthora nicotianae– root rot Botanical.com homepage 1995. www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/mgmh.html. Propagating Lavender Plants You can start lavender from hardwood or softwood cuttings. Preliminary testing was performed on lavender field crops to test a prototype machine designed to control weeds by flaming. Slow growth rates should be expected in the first year (6-8 in). Pruning lavender at least twice a year is an important way to ensure it stays bushy and healthy, so there’s no harm in taking the offcuts from routine pruning to create even more lovely lavender plants.. Prototype for flame weed control in medicinal and aromatic plants. Mana Kai Rangahou, New Zealand. In addition, because most lavender varieties are clones, vegetative propagation (cuttings, layerings, and division of roots) is highly recommended to retain desirable traits. Sometimes when pruning Lavender there are suitable sized pieces remaining to … Effects of aromatic plants on potato storage: sprout suppression and antimicrobial activity. No need to register, buy now! In a study from the Egyptian Journal of Horticulture, optimal yields of aerial parts of lavender were observed following fertilization with urea at 88 lb./ acre. N.C. Lavender is difficult to grow from seed, requiring five weeks of cold stratification before planting and, according to North Carolina State University, six months before the seedling grows to transplant size. Few insect problems have been reported on field-grown lavender. Propagation by seed is slow (six months to transplant size) and germination rates are low and sporadic. Written by Joe-Ann McCoy, Ph.D. 1999. “Lavender”. The Best Time to Take Lavender Cuttings. This article explains how to propagate lavender from cuttings. There are early, mid, and late season flowering varieties available. Any individual interested in lavender production needs to understand the complicated taxonomy of Lavendula species before attempting to choose a cultivar. Vascular wilts are very destructive diseases with typical symptoms characterized by rapid wilting, browning, and dying of leaves and succulent shoots of plants followed by the death of the plant. Avoid heavy organic mulches (sawdust, wood chips) as they can increase both fungal pathogens and insect problems. Dr. A. O. Tucker advises using one to two inches of white sand as a mulch around plants to reduce fungal pathogen infection. Extension Specialist, Herbs / Organics / Specialty Crops / Vegetables / Hemp. A Modern Herbal (1931). Feed the plant with one-quarter strength liquid plant fertilizer once a week. Softwood cuttings are taken from the soft, pliable tips of new growth. Germination study of lavender seeds. In Part 1 of our propagation blog series we looked at what propagation is, and why you may want to propagate your lavender. The Herb Companion. 1991). Various cultural practices can effect the ester value of Lavender oil. Major commercial growing areas are located in France, England, New Zealand and Australia. To propagate by layering, select a long, healthy flexible stem and remove 4-6 inches of foliage, leaving 3-4 inches of foliage at the tip of the branch. If not, then you will need to find or befriend someone willing to share cuttings from their plant.

commercial lavender propagation

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