The device is designed for 36 eggs. Humid regime of incubation of African ostrich - 20-35%, emu - 32-44%. Ar (1991) noted that the ambient humidity around the egg can control the rate of water loss during storage and incubation. The changing weather would also affect the humidity inside the incubator, so you would have to adjust it accordingly. 101-200 (2) Ostrich Incubators. The humidity is also critical, because if the air is too dry the egg will lose too much water to the atmosphere, which can make hatching difficult or impossible. The ban or rejection of the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feed in many countries as w…, Rapid development of wind energy across the American Great Plains has spurred concern about potential effects on grassla…. Eggs must be turned at least 3 to 5 times per day and up to 12 to 24 times per day. Min. During incubation, most ostrich and rhea growers set eggs vertically in the incubator trays, with the blunt end up. In the present study, incubator temperature and humidity settings yielded egg weight loss of ostrich eggs within a range generally accepted as optimal for egg incubation in most bird species. Aim for a room climate 25ºC/ 50% RH or any other combination that results in a maximum relative humidity of 25% at incubation temperature by using the Mollier diagram. Weight loss during incubation depends on the relative humidity of the air around the eggs and the porosity of the egg shell. Ideally, Bry-Air Desiccant Dehumidifier is installed in conjunction with air-conditioner (which maintains the temperature) to maintain the required humidity conditions inside the incubator. Calculate the average percentage of weight loss - which should be 0.37 %. 180 Eggs Capacity Incubator. We specialize in the manufacturing and marketing o f egg incubators and chick brooders. Electronic egg turning control, audio/visual indicators and a standard easy view door highlight a … The eggs are then placed in the incubators, in specially designed trays. As incubation proceeds, an egg will normally become lighter, and the air space within the egg will normally become larger, owing to evaporation from the egg. The Black Neck Ostriches adapt in the snow of Canada, the desert of Saudi Arabia and the high humidity of Bangkok. In addition, egg water, yolk, albumen, shell, and total solids were measured in an effort to determine the maternal investment of ostrich eggs. But in practice, good results are obtained with a weight loss of 15 per cent from setting to external pipping. As moisture is removed in the vapour phase, no moisture is formed as in the refrigeration process. By Pas Reform. Ostrich Eggs and Chicks. Remember, the incubator’s humidifying system can only increase humidity. Length of ostrich eggs : 150mm. I close all the windows and reluctantly turn the AC on and humidity levels in my incubator still refuse to dip below 30% (33% seems to be where it stays). Emu Egg Incubator Controls Order : 1 Set fertilized ostrich eggs for sale automatic ostrich fertile eggs incubator . Can be used as an Ostrich Egg Hatcher when purchased with the optional hatching baskets. The incubator can then be fumigated (not alwa… An on-board computer monitors systems and the environment every second to keep itself updated and to share this data with you. Ostriches are indigenous to Africa, although today it is not uncommon to find them being farmed commercially around the world for meat and leather production. $650.00 - $750.00 / Set. The conditions maintained inside the cabinet are 50% RH at 10ºC (50°F) to prevent weight loss. The impact of incubation temperature on egg weight loss, embryonic mortality, incubation period, hatchability, and chick weight in 394 ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs was studied. $400.00 - $550.00 / Set. Make sure that enough eggs are weighed to represent a viable average, as there may be considerable variation in the weight loss of individual eggs! Sufficient weight loss is necessary to obtain an air space which is big enough to facilitate internal pipping, after which the chick gradually changes over from respiration through the chorion-allantois to lung respiration as it prepares for the final step, external pipping. The 1502 offers an accurate digital thermostat with LCD display of Temperature and Humidity. The results of the study suggest that the optimal incubator humidity for ostrich eggs is less than 25% to allow a 15% loss of initial egg mass during the 45-d incubation period. The temperature and relative humidity of the air in the room in which the incubator is situated also affects the humidity inside the incubator. The results of the study suggest that the optimal incubator humidity for ostrich eggs is less than 25% to allow a 15% loss of initial egg mass during the 45-d incubation period. Incubation is the process by which certain oviparous (egg-laying) animals hatch their eggs; it also refers to the development of the embryo within the egg. In Ostrich Breeding Areas, the eggs are placed in a holding cabinet for several days. Multiple and various factors are vital to the incubation of various species of animal. When incubating, Craig sets the eggs on their side and turns them twice a day by hand as well as using the auto turner in the incubator. More ventilation causes: a) lower humidity in setter , and b) higher weight loss of eggs. Most bird species (with the exception of the ostrich family) will need to lose between 13 and 15% of their weight from the first day of incubation to the day they hatch. Automatic Humidity (2) Price. Our poultry equipment are widely appreciated owing to features like sturdy design, corrosion resistance and easy maintenance. Summary. Temperature Sensor Humidity Incubator 72 Poultry Ostrich Egg Incubator for Sale. Rapid development of wind energy across the American Great Plains has spurred concern about potential effects on grassland birds, the most rapidly declining avian group in North America. Below are general tips for incubating ostrich eggs in artificial ostrich egg incubator. With this in mind, the following is recommended: If weight loss at transfer is less then 10%, H.R. Many of these embryos will require some assistance in hatching, because they will be malpositioned to some degree, due to their oedematous condition. Up to US $60 transaction fees waived on the first 3 orders. Most common bird eggs like chickens, quail, and ducks require about 50–60 during incubation, with a slight bump to about 65–70 during the last 3 days of hatch. At that moment, it is already too late to correct insufficient weight loss, but this does allow the chick to survive by lung respiration after pipping into the (small) air cell. O ur incubators come in a wide range of sizes and are designed for various bird and poultry eggs including emu, ostrich, parrot, quail, chicken, duck and goose. Hence, moisture control becomes extremely necessary. Therefore, there are no areas of high humidity near cooling coils, and no ’free water surfaces’ which can harbor the growth of mold and bacteria. $400.00 - $556.00 / Set. We manufacture fully automatic Ostrich egg incubators and hatcheries as per customer needs. It is essential to keep the humidity for Ostrich Eggs at between 20-25%RH, otherwise you will get a very poor, or even nil hatching result. Also, the weight loss of the eggs should be controlled during the incubation period to prevent wet, sickly chicks. If the actual average weight loss is too low, adjustments can still be made to correct this. A batch of eggs takes about 44 days of incubation to hatch. Some physical requirementsfor Ostrich egg incubation. Egg incubator - poultry incubators - duck incubators, Exporting and supplying of poultry incubators, duck incubators, quails incubators, vanaraja incubators, poultry egg incubators, giriraja incubators, ostrich Egg turners for incubators turkey duck cabinet 1502 gqf rcom, Gqf 1611 universal automatic egg turner 6 universal egg racks. 21 days. The Ramil-36TsU digital incubator is a quality model for hatching ostrich eggs. The reality though is that the porosity of eggshells vary (becoming more porous later on in the year) and vary between different breeds and with different thickness of shell, so the correct humidity is whatever achieves the correct moisture or weight loss from the egg which is generally somewhere between 11 and 13% when the air sack occupies approximately a third of the egg at the point of internal pipping. Disinfecting the incubator should include a thorough cleaning to remove any organic material, followed by a thorough application of a disinfectant. The water vapour conductivity and the daily water loss of Ostrich eggs were similar to those of other birds, in proportion to epg size, despite the arid environment inhabited by Ostriches. Water loss from naturally incubated ostrich eggs has been measured as 8.8 to19.7% (Jarvis et al., 1985) and maximal hatching performance under artificial conditions has been reported for eggs that lost 12 to 14% of their water (Bowsher, 1992; Burger and Bertram, 1981; Swart et al., 1987). Incubation Temperature: 97-98F°. Important. The market value of an Ostrich egg can be as high as US$1000 to US$1500 and a fully-grown Ostrich (proven breeder) could fetch almost US$15000 to US$20000. The 1502 offers an accurate digital thermostat with LCD display of Temperature and Humidity. Some evaporated water from the eggs will raise this to a higher level. Condensation on the eggshell can clog pores and, like washing eggs, provides a … INCUBATION AND HATCHING Ostrich eggs have an incubation period of 39 to 59 days, with an average of 42 days. Therefore, maintain humidity in the egg incubator is very pivotal. Comparisons were made between the wild eggs and chicks, and those from domesticated hybrid-strain Ostriches in Bophuthatswana. Humidity Incubator manufacturers usually recommend optimum relative humidity settings for each model and each species of bird. I have found through the years that the humidity level in the incubator plays the biggest role in successful artificial incubation of peahen eggs. A batch of eggs takes about 44 days of incubation to hatch. (Wet bulb temperature 19-23°C), “Desiccant dehumidifiers from Bry-Air provide the ultimate in air quality whilst controlling humidity in the incubators.”. However, depending on climatic conditions, incubator operators often find it hard to achieve such high weight loss and losing too little weight results in lower hatchability and oedematous chicks. Everyone understands that proper temperature must be maintained, but humidity is just as important to maintain, and much more difficult. Christensen et al. Weiber Ostrich Egg Incubators is fully automatic with precise temperature and humidity control, and is labour saving, with capacities to hatch highest number eggs per batch. 1 Set (Min. 1 Set (Min. Even with a cabinet incubator, 6 is about the maximum capacity. 2 Item(s) Show. Broiler breeders fed twice a day were calmer and laid more eggs, Introduction It has an automatic rotation system and an electronic control system. Air conditioning alone or refrigeration type dehumidifiers cannot achieve such stringent conditions. Chickens 21 days Turkeys 28 days Ducks 28-35 days Quail 17 days Ostrich 42 days. We are one of the reputed companies in India engaged in manufacturing, exporting and supplying a wide range of egg incubators. This air contains more moisture than what’s recommended inside the incubator. HEKA Ostrich Egg Incubator 120 Eggs. 17 days. Eggs were obtained from 3 farms in Texas. Order) Wholesale Price Incubator 96 Ostrich Egg Setter Incubator for Sale Made In China. Incubator Automatic Control Humidity Machine Price Egg Hatching New Ostrich Incubator , Find Complete Details about Incubator Automatic Control Humidity Machine Price Egg Hatching New Ostrich Incubator,New Ostrich Incubator,Incubator Automatic Control Humidity,Incubator Machine Price Egg Hatching from Supplier or Manufacturer-Nanchang Panche Technology Co., Ltd. China Cheap Automatic Ostrich Egg Incubator for Sale, Find details about China Ostrich Egg Incubator, Automatic Ostrich Egg Incubator from Cheap Automatic Ostrich Egg Incubator for Sale - KANGAS INDUSTRIAL CO., LTD. Relative Humidity: 25-40%. During artificial incubation, it is important to ensure that the eggs lose enough weight by evaporating water through the pores in the egg shell. £3,900.00. Unfortunately there is little available research on optimal weight loss in ostriches. Alibaba.com offers 947 ostrich egg incubator products. If you do not have a separate hatcher/brooder box, you will need to make accommodations with your incubator. Nor other birds eggs can be hatched in ostrich egg incubators or hatchery. £3,900.00 - £3,900.00 (1) £4,300.00 - £4,300.00 (1) Chicken Egg Capacity Range . A wide variety of ostrich egg incubator options are available to you, such as usage, key selling points, and condition. Egg quality is reported to have significant genetic components (Stewart, 1995). Inadequate ventilation, improper humidity and ill-fitting egg racks have been major problems in the past. China Hatching Ostrich Eggs, China Hatching Ostrich Eggs Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - Source a Large Selection of Hatching Ostrich Eggs Products at incubators hatching eggs ,ostrich egg ,egg hatching machine from China Alibaba.com In many species of reptile for example, no fixed temperature is necessary, but the actual temperature determines the sex ratio of the offspring. Present data indicate that normal hatchability should be expected in ostrich eggs that lose 12 to 17% of initial weight from setting to 38 days of incubation. The Remil-36TSU Incubator is equipped with an automatic temperature control function, as well as an internal ventilation system. 1 Set (Min. Incubating eggs of any species is more complicated than most people think, and when it is a business, success is critical. (1996) stated that the optimal incubator humidity for ostrich eggs must be less than 25% RH so that a 15% loss of initial egg mass occurs during a 45-d incubation period. Make sure all the time there is a small pan of water inside so that it retains the needed moisture. New findings about viral regions in the DNA of chickens aim to aid productivity for smallholder farms in developing countries. Three incubation temperatures (36.5, 37.0, or 37.5 degrees C) with relative humidity ranging from 20 to 30% were used. The incubator should be tested at least 12 hours prior to use. Time requirements for incubation of various species. Weiber supplies incubator which will accommodate Ostrich egg. Causes of Uncontrolled Humidity. Relative humidity and thus vapour pressure inside the incubator can, to a large extent, be controlled during artificial incubation. The temperature is totally microprocessor P.I.D. Water loss during 42 days of incubation was 11–12% of initial egg weight and, in addition, early laid eggs lost 3–4% during the 2½-3 week pre-incubation period. See the chart below. Natural variation in the porosity of different eggs means it is impossible to give exact recommendations for optimum relative humidity. (1996) stated that the optimal incubator humidity for ostrich eggs must be less than 25% RH so that a 15% loss of initial egg mass occurs during a 45-d incubation period. If you place Ostrich eggs in conventional incubators, you will end up with rotten eggs. He has found that the humidity level in the incubator plays the biggest role in successful incubation of peahen eggs. In this week's poultry digest, Jim Wyckoff outlines the continuing avian influenza cases in Europe and Poland's increase in turkey production. The temperature is totally microprocessor P.I.D. The Bry-Air Dehumidifier not only maintains the required humidity level but also ensures cleaner production environment, as the unique desiccant provided in the dehumidifier, selectively filters out bacteria and other spores. Ventilate the setter sufficiently to remove water produced by eggs. Do not put ostrich eggs of different size in one incubator chamber. The vast product range caters for hobbyists, medium and large scale commercial producers. Before you proceed let me tell you that, Ostrich egg incubators have entirely different temperature and humidity requirements. An ostrich cannot always fully plant eggs. Ostrich are large flightless birds. About 97% of these are Egg Incubators, 1% are Other Animal Husbandry Equipment. Set Descending Direction. Chickens. Emu growers set eggs on their sides. Ventilate the room to ensure that outlet air (containing water evaporated from the eggs) does not become inlet air. All Rights Reserved. The impact of incubation temperature on egg weight loss, embryonic mortality, incubation period, hatchability, and chick weight in 394 ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs was studied. It is best that you have a separate hatchery in order to transfer the eggs into your hatcher at day 38. Turkeys. Ostrich breeders are increasingly using state-of-the-art hi-tech incubators; Research facilities have been set up to ensure profitable production. can be maintained. Three incubation temperatures (36.5, 37.0, or 37.5°C) with relative humidity ranging from 20 to 30% were used. In such cases, they resort to incubation of ostrich eggs, but this must be done according to a special scheme. Eggs were obtained from 3 farms in Texas. Environmental conditions, handling, sanitation and record keeping can impact the success of incubating and hatching eggs. Please note that several factors can change the amount of time listed below, such as incubation temperature, humidity level, egg handling, and genetics. Eggs were obtained from 3 farms in Texas. An incubator should be able to set the perfect environment and condition for an egg to incubate because it regulates the factors such as temperature, humidity, and turning the eggs when necessary, so the egg is incubated properly because it plays the role of the hen in its natural state. Weiber Ostrich Egg Incubators is fully automatic with precise temperature and humidity control, and is labour Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. The 1502 “SPORTSMAN” incubator with set of Emu/Ostrich Egg Trays! Fertile Egg Quality From the smallest canary eggs to the largest ostrich eggs, high quality fertile eggs should always be considered rare and fragile. In Ostrich Breeding Areas, the eggs are placed in a holding cabinet for several days. Welcome to Easyhatch Incubation Equipment. Requirements for relative humidity during incubation also vary with species: 10–40 percent (usually around 20 percent) for ostrich eggs, 35–55 percent (usually around 40 percent) for emu eggs, and 40–55 percent (usually around 45 percent) for rhea eggs. About 97% of these are Egg Incubators, 1% are Other Animal Husbandry Equipment. Hatcher Temperature: 96.8 F°. Incubation Period: 42 days. Natural variation in the porosity of different eggs means it is impossible to give exact recommendations for optimum relative humidity. It cannot decrease it! Go from the standard humidity level of about 55% to an increased level of about 65%. incubator is adequate as long as optimal temperature, humidity, ventilation, turning, etc. The conditions maintained inside the cabinet are 50% RH at 10ºC (50°F) to prevent weight loss. Alibaba.com offers 947 ostrich egg incubator products. ostrich egg incubator manufacturer/supplier, China ostrich egg incubator manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese ostrich egg incubator manufacturers, suppliers, factories, exporters & wholesalers quickly on Made-in-China.com. When opening unhatched eggs, it is common to find full grown chicks that failed to pip the air cell. If you lay all the eggs in the chamber at the same time, the air temperature inside can reach 37.2 degrees, but it … Weiber supplies incubator which will accommodate Ostrich egg. Hatching phase (hatcher) No turning of eggs 21 days. The optimum incubation conditions for the Ostrich are in the range of 36-37°C dry bulb temperature at 25±5% RH. Egg Incubator, Incubator, Poultry Equipment manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Duck Chicken Solar Hatching Machine Ostrich Chicks Egg Incubator, Chicken Fully Automatic Quail Capacity 5000 Egg Incubator Price, Eggs Household Chick Incubator Automatic Small Egg Incubators and so on. The process itself is complicated, because it is necessary to choose the right incubator, maintain optimal temperature, timely spray, arrange lighting in order to get well-developed ostriches. controlled for accurate temperature rating unit is provided with manual tilting device, so as to tilt the tray holding the eggs. Wilson, University of Florida, suggests as an emergency measure in his “Incubation and hatching of Ratites”, to drill about four holes of 2mm diameter in the shell over the aircell at the time of transfer to the hatcher. This allows adjustments to be made and the temperature regulated prior to starting the incubation process. I maintain the humidity level at 60%. One benefit of cabinet incubators is that they can provide automatic egg turning of Ostrich hatching eggs, which can be a great convenience for those with more hectic schedules, especially with an incubation period about twice that of chicken eggs. Once the eggs have been placed in the incubator, it tends to lose its moisture during incubation. You know that the three days before hatching are the right time to raise the humidity in an egg incubator. With a static system, the humidity in the incubator is the combination of the ambient humidity in the room, which may go up and down, plus the water evaporated from the eggs, plus the humidity added to the incubator from the evaporation of the water container. It depends greatly on what type of eggs you are incubating. The impact of incubation temperature on egg weight loss, embryonic mortality, incubation period, hatchability, and chick weight in 394 ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs was studied. Ostrich Egg Incubator, Industrial Ostrich Egg Incubator, Ostrich Egg Incubator Hatchery E manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Fully Automatic Industrial Ostrich Egg Incubator Hatchery Equipment, CE Certified Leading Brand Automatic Digital Eggs Incubator (KP-7), CE Certified Fully Automatic Hot Sell Solar Birds Eggs Incubator and so on. This mini-model is maintenance free and the control panel is … Almost every part of the Ostrich – the bones, the feathers, the hide, is commercially viable. Quail. Egg Incubator, Incubator, Poultry Equipment manufacturer / supplier in China, offering 5000 Eggs Fully Automatic Chicken/Duck/Goose/ Quail/Ostrich Egg Incubator, Customizable Christmas Goods Chicken Egg Incubators for Poultry Eggs Hatching Incubator, Wholesale Christmas Goods Chicken Egg Incubators for Poultry Eggs Hatching Incubator and so on. Your hatcher will need to be set at 97.5 degree temperature & about 45% humidity level. On warm and/or humid days, an air conditioner may be required, to cool and dehumidify at the same time. New Buyer Promotion. Eggs were obtained from 3 farms in Texas. The 1502 “SPORTSMAN” incubator with set of Emu/Ostrich Egg Trays! The series of the egg incubators are unique and simple in design. Accurate, effective humidity control allows for higher hatching potential and quality chicks as they are birds from a semi desert habitat. fertilized ostrich eggs for sale automatic ostrich fertile eggs incubator, You can get more details about from mobile site on m.alibaba.com. This converts to a wet bulb temperature of 86-87ºF. View as List Grid. Therefore, the incubator must be kept in a suitable de-humidified room. A wide variety of ostrich egg incubator options are available to you, such as usage, key selling points, and condition. However under commercial conditions, almost all ostrich farmers rely on artificial incubation. Egg Incubator. Incubation and hatching techniques are improving rapidly in the ratite industry, which helps reduce early mortality. An on-board computer monitors systems and the environment every second to keep itself updated and to share this data with you. Usually, fresh air is introduced into the incubator. Order) New Design Best Quality Chicken Commercial Egg Incubator For Sale. Ostrich 56: 42–51.. Eggs from wild and domesticated Ostriches Struthio camelus australis were studied to determine temperature and humidity requirements for successful incubation. Humidity Control. From the Mollier diagram (summarized in table), it can be concluded that with a room temperature of 25ºC and 50%RH, the humidity in the setter at incubation temperature will drop to 24.4%. No part of this site may be reproduced without permission. The incubator should also be cleaned and properly disinfected prior to use. I'm told Ostrich eggs need LOW humidity, 25% or lower (preferably lower). Emu eggs require 95.5 to 96.5 degrees F (35.3 - 35.8 C) and Ostrich eggs require 97.0 to 98.0 degrees F (36.1 - 36.6 C) The amount of time required to incubate an egg can very quite a bit depending on the type of bird. It is around day 19 when the first chick could start to pip and this is the moment to raise the humidity. Three incubation temperatures (36.5, 37.0, or 37.5 degrees C) with relative humidity ranging from 20 to 30% were used. for each day of incubation - to achieve the desired weight loss of 15 % at external pipping (around 41 days of incubation). Jarvis, M. J. F., Keffen, R. H. & Jarvis, C. 1985. Sort By. These chicks actually drown in their own eggs. Abstract The impact of incubation temperature on egg weight loss, embryonic mortality, incubation period, hatchability, and chick weight in 394 ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs was studied. During this period, for effective incubation, strict temperature and humidity control becomes paramount to prevent mortality. To find the correct level of relative humidity, weigh a few eggs individually before setting and again at regular intervals. Condensation forms on eggshells exposed to excessive humidity. Christensen et al. The eggs are then placed in the incubators, in specially designed trays. Usually, fresh air is introduced into the incubator, at about 72 CMH (42 CFM) per 100 eggs. To get maximum hatch rate, one should try to adhere all the guidelines. Research facilities have been set up to ensure profitable production. The discussion outlines some of the remaining problems associated with Ostrich egg incubation. Relative humidity in the storage room should be approximately 70 percent to 80 percent (wet bulb temperature of 50 degrees F to 60 degrees F). This is ok, but we need to be reminded that the average humidity is all that matters. Weight: 1300-1700g. Other authors suggest that the optimal incubator humidity for ostrich eggs is less than 25% to allow a 15% loss of initial egg mass during a 45-day incubation period. It lays the largest eggs of any living bird. Ostrich, Kiwi and Emu breeders are increasingly using state-of-the-art hi-tech incubators. Adjustments normally are needed in each machine to obtain the desired egg weight loss. Commercial breeding or Ostrich farming is a viable and profitable business in many countries such as Australia, Kenya, South Africa, the U.S.A. and even Malaysia. If you are looking for Empty Ostrich Eggs for Decorating or Décor click here. By weighing the eggs every few days you can accurately adjust the humidity to compensate for too much or too little weight loss. Diameter of ostrich eggs : 1135mm. The impact of incubation temperature on egg weight loss, embryonic mortality, incubation period, hatchability, and chick weight in 394 ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs was studied. It is the largest living species of bird and can run up to about 70 km/h, the fastest land speed of any bird. But in general, relative humidity in ostrich incubation should be between 25 and 35 per cent. This is in a new GQF sportsman cabinet model, and yes there is no water tray in it. In the wild, ostriches hatch their own eggs through natural incubation, in which both male and female take ‘shifts’. Likewise, humidity in the setter will be higher at higher room humidity levels, but also at higher room temperatures with equal room humidity. The eggs artificially incubated at 35 °C to 36°C and 40–42% relative humidity, lost nearly the same weight as did eggs in naturally incubated nests. Incubating Emu Eggs At The Emu Oil Depot. https://www.bryair.com/industries-applications/applications-of-dehumidifiers-and-dryers/storage-2/special-rooms/ostrich-egg-incubators/, Applications of Gas Phase Filtration Systems, Applications of Plastic Auxiliary Equipment, Applications of High Temperature Heat Recovery Wheel, Product - Compact Dehumidifier - FFB Series, Poor humidity control in the incubator results in high mortality rate of Ostrich during breeding.