Traders of live fish sometimes supply fishers with cyanide. The inadequacy of sufficiency in enforcement and shortcomings of national regulations cancel out conversation efforts of many countries that actually try to protect the humphead. Save The Humphead Wrasse. In 1996, the humphead wrasse was listed as a vulnerable species in the IUCN Red List because in the last decade, humphead wrasse populations were declining rapidly. The main threat to the humphead wrasse is over-fishing. Though the creature, that lives up to thirty years, has about twenty-six more years to breed, give or take, their spawning sights are highly predictable. Which can be invasive species, that with overpopulation will actually destroy coral reefs. This enormous, colorful coral-reef dweller is slow to reproduce, making it vulnerable to overfishing. The humphead is a naturally rare species because the species takes a long time to reach maturity (five to seven years, to be exact), delaying the ammount of time the fish have to spawn. Humphead Wrasse are endangered due to live reef food fish trade, also habitat loss and degradation last over fishing. This species is rare in the wild and is extremely vulnerable to over-exploitation because of its slow breeding rate and predictable spawning sites. Humphead wrasse are known to survive for at least 30 years. Bigger reef fish such as sharks eat the humphead wrasse. This leads us to the second main reason that the species is almost extinct: trade. Get Involved! It has a distinctly shaped hump on its head and a pale, complex colour pattern. The large and slow adult Wrasse is usually tired of human activities, and often easy to catch by spear fishers in its den. What is the Humphead Wrasses Habitat ? The Humphead, Maori or Napoleon (to mention but a few of its many names) wrasse,Cheilinus undulatus, is the largest member of the family Labridae and widely distributed across the reefs of the Indo-Pacific. The fish exhibits protogynous hermaphroditism. Today, the meat of this fish is sold in restaurants for a very high price. It was listed because it was considered to be actually or potentially threatened by prevailing exploitation levels or disturbances if these persist without any controls. The humphead is a naturally rare species because the species takes a long time … Fishery-dependent and trade-related data suggest a 10-fold or greater decline over the last 10 to 15 years in heavily exploited areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Humphead Maori Wrasse is a highly prized food fish in some countries, and has been heavily exploited for the live reef fish trade through its core range in southeastern Asia (Sadovy et al. They also crush large chunks of dead coral rubble with peg-like teeth to feed on the burrowing mussels and worms. The status of this species as a luxury food means that its market value is likely to increase as it becomes less readily available from the wild due to overfishing, thereby encouraging continued exploitation even as populations decline. Humphead Wrasse are the most expensive and prized fish in the live reef fish trade, which poses a huge threat to the population. This species was the first reef fish used as food to be listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered species (CITES). Status: Endangered. Countries that even lightly fish the Humphead Wrasse in surrounding waters have reported 10 times fewer … Resources: WWF: Humphead Wrasse However, the cyanide can kill corals on repeated use and also causes much bycatch death among those animals exposed to the poison but not removed. What Humphead Wrasse eat is one of the reasons they are so important to our planet. Although cyanide is a poison and will quickly knock out any fish exposed to cyanide solution, if the target fish is rapidly removed to fresh water, it will survive. They can be seen feasting on shellfish, other fish, sea stars, sea urchins and crabs, crushing the shells to get at the animal within. Females are whitish and have a smaller hump, and young fish have black lines behind their eyes. They are able to consume hard shelled like crustaceans through their teeth. The Humphead Wrasse is the perfect example for us to see how interconnected nature really is. It’s considered a luxury food, … The Humphead wrasse cannot yet be hatchery-reared at commercial levels, so all fish in trade are wild-caught. in Beijing in 2015 at a luxury hotel). Go to the website of WWF and donate to them, symbolically adopt an animal to support the Illegal capture of undersize, juvenile fish often occurs, often using cyanide as the fishing method because the species is otherwise difficult to capture. With sumptuous, fleshy lips and a bulbous, protruding forehead, the humphead wrasse is an unforgettable fish. The species is much sought after, particularly as a live export for the restaurant industry. A humphead wrasse lying on its side at a cleaning station. ! Most Humphead wrasse in this international trade are less than 50 cm total length, and most are juveniles. Average Weight: over 400 pounds. To catch them alive for the LRFFT, cyanide is frequently used in some areas for it is not an easy fish to catch. What the Humphead Wrasse Eat and Foodchain ? how can we help the humhead wrasse from being extinct ? Only a few of these countries and territories have effective management measures in place to regulate the trade of the humphead. It normally lives independently around coral reefs, but many gather together during the breeding season." Welcome to our website! Donate!!!! What WWF Is Doing © Darren Jew / WWF-Canon In Malaysia, WWF helped to stop the export of this important fish. The genomes of the humphead wrasse must be evaluated so as to try to determine a way to help keep the species alive. English language common names are humphead wrasse, blue-tooth groper, double-headed maori wrasse, double-headed parrot-fish, giant humphead wrasse, giant maori wrasse, giant wrasse, humhead wrasse, hump-headed wrasse, humphead, humphead maori wrasse, humphead wrasse, Maori wrasse, Napoleon maori-wrasse, Napoleon wrasse, and Napoleonfish. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List and included in CITES Appendix II in 2004. Due to documented declines, the Humphead wrasse was listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1996 and later upgraded to endangered (2004). Indeed, as far as we can tell, it is becoming increasingly uncommon. Both the shape of their bodies and their coloring change over the course of their lives. He breaks whole corals to find potential prey: snails, shells and sea urchins. Despite its widespread distribution, adults of the species are nowhere particularly common, except in a few very well and long-protected areas. That is why 50% of the Humphead Wrasse print will be donated to the WWF who is working to stop the exporting of this fish to give them and the coral reefs a better shot. The population saw a more rapid decrease when commercial fisheries began to get involved. Adult individuals are green with a protuberance on their forehead that reminds one of a hump. The Humphead wrasse is a fish that lives in coral reefs. More recently (1990s onwards) it has come to form an important part of the live reef food fish trade (LRFFT) centred in Southeast Asia, at times commanding over US$500 per kg at retail (e.g. Hunting Habits/Diet. The status of this species as a luxury food means that its market value is likely to increase as it becomes less readily available from the wild due to overfishing, thereby encouraging continued exploitation even as populations decline. For example, though there is an export ban in the Maldives, the illegal export of humpheads still occurs in spite of the protection on the species. Humphead Wrasse is a very good eating fish, which explains why it has been commercially overfished. The population has seen a 50% loss just in the last 30 years. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Larger fish may sometimes be taken at night from their resting places where they are easy targets for SCUBA divers. Napoleon fish are carnivorous and eat during the day. Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported (IUU) fishing and trading of the humphead happens quite frequently. Historically the Humphead wrasse was prized for its flavour and texture. Such has been the concern for illegal trade in this species that a Decision by the CITES Secretariat was issued in 2010 to look more closely at the legality of its international trade. There are two main reasons that the humphead is going extinct: population and trade. In Polynesia, humphead wrasse are victims of their own territoriality.If they are caught out in open water, they will always try to return to their homes on the ocean's slopes. It is now clear, based on the results of studies, surveys, and many different anecdotal accounts, that the Humphead wrasse cannot withstand anything other than light levels of fishing pressure. Traditionally, the wrasse was fished by hook and line, hand spear (more recently by speargun using SCUBA, or diving tanks) or by trap, depending on fish size. The humphead wrasse is highly vulnerable to overfishing because it’s a valued luxury food as a part of the live reef fish trade predominant across Southeast Asia. Why is the humphead wrasse endangered and what is being done to protect it ? The Humphead (Napoleon) wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, was listed on Appendix II of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) in October of 2004. Marine species that trigger Aitutaki’s KBA status are the endangered Humphead Wrasse Cheilinus undulatus) and Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas). Recreational anglers may catch Humphead Wrasse incidentally or for sport, but it's illegal to keep them in many countries due to their status as an endangered species. Scientific name: Cheilinus undulatus DESCRIPTION: The humphead wrasse is a large fish with a highly developed head, a large mouth and thick, fleshy lips. Due to documented declines, the Humphead wrasse was listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1996 and later upgraded to endangered (2004). The forty-eight countries that are surrounded by the waters that inhabit the humpheads don't really do a good job with protecting this endangered species.

why is the humphead wrasse endangered

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