[84], After the Fall of France, Hitler awarded Göring the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross for his successful leadership. [28], Hitler and the Nazi Party held mass meetings and rallies in Munich and elsewhere during the early 1920s, attempting to gain supporters in a bid for political power. [124] This move likely saved Göring's life; Bormann had ordered him executed if Berlin had fallen. [94] Hitler and his top staff were sure that the campaign would be over by Christmas, and no provisions were made for reserves of men or equipment. In July 1940, Hitler began preparations for an invasion of Britain. Hitler did not give permission for even a partial retreat until mid-January 1942; by this time the losses were comparable to those of the French invasion of Russia in 1812. Göring had already received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 30 September 1939 as Commander in Chief of the Luftwaffe. Around that time, Göring increasingly withdrew from military and political affairs to devote his attention to collecting property and artwork, much of which was stolen from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler Facts - Hitler Documentary ☆Let's keep in touch: ☆Facebook Page: . The sentences were read out on 30 September 1946. [169], In July 1941, Göring issued a memo to Reinhard Heydrich ordering him to organise the practical details of the Final Solution to the "Jewish Question". Göring, thinking that Diels was not ruthless enough to use the Gestapo effectively to counteract the power of the SA, handed over control of the Gestapo to Himmler on 20 April 1934. [114] Göring arrived at his estate at Obersalzberg on 22 April, the same day that Hitler, in a lengthy diatribe against his generals, first publicly admitted that the war was lost and that he intended to remain in Berlin to the end and then commit suicide. The prosecution levelled an indictment of four charges, including a charge of conspiracy; waging a war of aggression; war crimes, including the plundering and removal to Germany of works of art and other property; and crimes against humanity, including the disappearance of political and other opponents under the Nacht und Nebel (Night and Fog) decree; the torture and ill-treatment of prisoners of war; and the murder and enslavement of civilians, including what was at the time estimated to be 5,700,000 Jews. As an army political agent, he joined the small German Workers’ Party in Munich (September 1919). A large reception was held the night before at the Berlin Opera House. They arranged a visit at the home of her parents and spent much time together through 1921, when Göring left for Munich to take political science at the university. [134] During cross-examination, chief prosecutor Robert H. Jackson read out the minutes of a meeting that had been held shortly after Kristallnacht, a major pogrom in November 1938. [133] When testifying on his own behalf, Göring emphasised his loyalty to Hitler, and claimed to know nothing about what had happened in the concentration camps, which were under Himmler's control. Tiara and pontifical vestments are a perfect fit. Based in Britain, they began operations against German targets. In a very short time he had organised a division of 11,000 men. Adolph Hitler had a number of generals who were close to him during the Nazi reign in Germany, according to the website Second World War. The economy had recovered, which meant fewer opportunities for the Nazis to agitate. His reputation began to decline. [36] Weaned off the drug, he left the facility briefly, but had to return for further treatment. [88] Though he was confident the Luftwaffe could defeat the RAF within days, Göring, like Admiral Erich Raeder, commander-in-chief of the Kriegsmarine (navy),[89] was pessimistic about the chance of success of the planned invasion (codenamed Operation Sea Lion). Bombing raids commenced on British air installations and on cities and centres of industry. [97] Poor weather conditions, fuel shortages, a delay in building aircraft bases in Eastern Europe, and overstretched supply lines were also factors. He was taken into custody near Radstadt on 6 May by elements of the 36th Infantry Division of the US Army. [111], As the Soviets approached Berlin, Hitler's efforts to organise the defence of the city became ever more meaningless and futile. At sixteen he was sent to a military academy at Berlin Lichterfelde, from which he graduated with distinction. Hermann Goring: Hitler's Second-in-command (Holocaust Biographies) Library Binding – January 1, 2001 by Fred Ramen (Author) › Visit Amazon's Fred Ramen Page. The genocide of the Jews was the culmination of a decade of German policy under Nazi rule and the realization of a core goal of the Nazi dictator, Adolf Hitler. Germans joked about his ego, saying that he would wear an admiral's uniform with rubber medals to take a bath, and his obesity, joking that "he sits down on his stomach". [128], The trial lasted 218 days; the prosecution presented their case from November through March, and Göring's defence—the first to be presented—lasted from 8 to 22 March. [5] Heinrich had three children from a previous marriage. [52], During the early 1930s, Göring was often in the company of Emmy Sonnemann, an actress from Hamburg. "[51] In his own Nuremberg testimony, Göring denied this story. Röhm was shot dead in his cell when he refused to commit suicide; Göring personally went over the lists of detainees—numbering in the thousands—and determined who else should be shot. His IQ was tested while in custody and found to be 138. The campaign failed, and Sea Lion was postponed indefinitely on 17 September 1940. After Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Göring was named as minister without portfolio in the new government. [101] The German Sixth Army entered the city, but because of its location on the front line, it was still possible for the Soviets to encircle and trap it there without reinforcements or supplies. When Hitler did not approve of the wording of the plebiscite, Göring telephoned Schuschnigg and Austrian head of state Wilhelm Miklas to demand Schuschnigg's resignation, threatening invasion by German troops and civil unrest by the Austrian Nazi Party members. [14] He finished the war with 22 victories. Around this time he became interested in Schorfheide Forest, where he set aside 100,000 acres (400 km2) as a state park, which is still extant. [92] By the end of the year, it was clear that British morale was not being shaken by the Blitz, though the bombings continued through May 1941. Himmler ranked behind only Adolf Hitler as the second-most powerful leader in the Nazi Germany “Third Reich,” according to Britannica.com, first joining the Nazi Party in 1925. [69] Göring felt obligated to tell Hitler, but also saw this event as an opportunity to dispose of Blomberg. On some specific cases there may be conflict of testimony, but in terms of the broad outline, his own admissions are more than sufficiently wide to be conclusive of his guilt. Hermann Goring: Hitler s Second-in-Command. They flew reconnaissance and bombing missions, for which the Crown Prince invested both Göring and Loerzer with the Iron Cross, first class. In the May 1928 elections the Nazi Party only obtained 12 seats out of an available 491 in the Reichstag. [148], The confiscation of Jewish property gave Göring the opportunity to amass a personal fortune. One of his assistants, SS Major Hermann Höfle, would coordinate the deportation of the Jews with local civilian and SS and police authorities. Personal problems continued to multiply. In his last will and testament, Hitler expelled Göring from the party, formally rescinded the decree making him his successor, and upbraided Göring for "illegally attempting to seize control of the state. The Reichstag fire occurred on the night of 27 February 1933. He then was transferred to Jagdstaffel 26, commanded by Loerzer, in February 1917. [152][153] Göring worked closely with the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (Reichsleiter Rosenberg Taskforce), an organisation tasked with the looting of artwork and cultural material from Jewish collections, libraries, and museums throughout Europe. He gave evasive, convoluted answers to direct questions and had plausible excuses for all his actions during the war. They were assigned as a team to FFA 25 in the Crown Prince's Fifth Army. In implementation of the "Final Solution," German authorities and their collaborators killed up to six million Jews—two-thirds of the Jews living in Europe in 1939—by poison gas, shooting, and other means. [80] The invasion of Poland, the opening action of World War II, began at dawn on 1 September 1939. Göring was immediately infatuated and asked her to meet him in Stockholm. Fighter aircraft flew overhead on the night of the reception and the day of the ceremony,[54] at which Hitler was best man. [119][121] Bormann made an announcement over the radio that Göring had resigned for health reasons. He participated in World War I and had experience as a pilot and lieutenant. Chronicles the life of the powerful member of the Nazi Party who was second-in-command to Adolf Hitler and leader of the German Air Force during World War II. To carry out the mass murder of an estimated two million Jews, Globocnik created a Department on his staff for Operation Reinhard. He became a mountain climber, scaling peaks in Germany, at the Mont Blanc massif, and in the Austrian Alps. In October 1941, Himmler authorized SS General Odilo Globocnik (SS and police leader for the Lublin District of the Generalgouvernement) to implement a plan to systematically murder all Jews residing in the Generalgouvernement. TTY: 202.488.0406, Aktion Reinhard in the Generalgouvernement, 1942, Major deportations to Auschwitz, 1941-1944, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC, Holocaust Survivors and Victims Resource Center. He was Hitler's second-in-command and one of the most powerful and infamous Nazis. At the meeting, Göring had plotted to confiscate Jewish property in the wake of the pogrom. At the Nuremberg Rally that September, Göring and other speakers denounced the Czechs as an inferior race that must be conquered. )[11], Göring joined the Prince Wilhelm Regiment (112th Infantry, Garrison: Mülhausen) of the Prussian Army in 1912. A subsidiary aim of Operation Reinhard was to exploit a small minority of Jews residing in the Generalgouvernement as forced laborers before killing them. The Görings—with difficulty—raised the money in the spring of 1925 for a journey to Sweden via Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Danzig (now Gdańsk). In this three part series, learn more about the power struggle between Hienrich Himmler, Hermann Goering, and Martin Bormann in Nazi Germany. [79] On 30 August 1939, immediately prior to the outbreak of the Second World War, Hitler appointed Göring as the chairman of a new six-person Council of Ministers for Defense of the Reich which was set up to operate as a war cabinet. ", "Barbarossa Revisited: A Critical Reappraisal of the Opening Stages of the Russo-German Campaign (June–December 1941)", "Lost Prison Interview with Hermann Goring: The Reichsmarschall's Revelations", The Goering Collection: online database (in German as Die Kunstsammlung Hermann Göring) of 4263 artworks in Hermann Göring's collection, National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), National Socialist League for Physical Exercise (NSRL), German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), Hans Karl Freiherr von Stein zu Nord- und Ostheim, Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien, Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia, Ferdinand Otto Wilhelm Henning von Westphalen, National Political Institute of Education, Research Office of the Reich Air Ministry, German Radio Intelligence Operations during World War II, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hermann_Göring&oldid=999449706, Commanders Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword, German people convicted of crimes against humanity, German people convicted of the international crime of aggression, Grand Cordons of the Order of the Rising Sun, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Knights of the House Order of Hohenzollern, Luftwaffe personnel convicted of war crimes, Members of the Reichstag of the Weimar Republic, Nazis who committed suicide in prison custody, Nazis who participated in the Beer Hall Putsch, People convicted by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, Prisoners sentenced to death by international courts and tribunals, Recipients of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, Recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, Recipients of the Order of Michael the Brave, 1st class, Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (military class), Recipients of the clasp to the Iron Cross, 1st class, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 January 2021, at 06:39. Globocnik and his staff managed the mass murder of up to 1,700,000 Jews in the Operation Reinhard killing centers and in shooting operations throughout the Generalgouvernement. As a temporary measure, while the top leadership considered long-term options, German authorities established ghettos in the Generalgouvernement (that part of German-occupied Poland not directly annexed to Germany, attached to German East Prussia or incorporated into the German-occupied Soviet Union) and in the District Wartheland, commonly called the Warthegau (an area of western Poland directly annexed to the German Reich). In other cases, he collected bribes for allowing others to steal Jewish property. Hermann Göring was generally considered the second most powerful Nazi for most of Hitler's reign. Though he liked to be called "der Eiserne" (the Iron Man), the once dashing and muscular fighter pilot had become corpulent. Meanwhile, the Nazi Party was in a period of rebuilding and waiting. Göring was certified a dangerous drug addict and was placed in Långbro asylum on 1 September 1925. He was one of the few Nazi leaders who did not take offence at hearing jokes about himself, "no matter how rude", taking them as a sign of popularity. The first thousand-bomber raid was staged on Cologne on 30 May 1942. Witnesses, including Paul Koerner and Erhard Milch, tried to portray Göring as a peaceful moderate. In addition to his Iron Crosses (1st and 2nd Class), he received the Zähringer Lion with swords, the Friedrich Order, the House Order of Hohenzollern with swords third class, and finally, in May 1918, the coveted Pour le Mérite. [167] He required the registration of all Jewish property as part of the Four Year Plan, and at a meeting held after Kristallnacht was livid that the financial burden for the Jewish losses would have to be made good by German-owned insurance companies. The SS and police killed at least 167,000 Jews, as well as approximately 4,300 Roma (Gypsies) in gas vans. At this time, Carin—who liked Hitler—often played hostess to meetings of leading Nazis, including her husband, Hitler, Rudolf Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, and Ernst Röhm. Göring did not attend the conference, but he was present at other meetings where the number of people killed was discussed. Göring Major deportations to Auschwitz, 1941-1944 - US Holocaust Memorial Museum. [49][50], At the Nuremberg trials, General Franz Halder testified that Göring admitted responsibility for starting the fire. Born: October 7, 1900 Birthplace: Munich, Germany See search results for this author. [108] Hitler began excluding him from conferences, but continued him in his positions at the head of the Luftwaffe and as plenipotentiary of the Four Year Plan. [135] He told Gilbert that he would never have supported the anti-Jewish measures if he had known what was going to happen. Göring repeatedly visited the Paris headquarters to review the incoming stolen goods and to select items to be sent on a special train to Carinhall and his other homes. It had gas chambers, in which the SS killed tens of thousands of Jews, primarily forced laborers too weak to work. The family was forced to leave Veldenstein and moved to Munich; Göring's father died shortly afterwards. As a result of this promotion, he was the highest-ranking soldier in Germany until the end of the war. He instituted reforms to the forestry laws and acted to protect endangered species. [105] Air raids continued on targets further from England after auxiliary fuel tanks were installed on US fighter aircraft. Hermann Wilhelm Göring was born on January 1, 1893. [138], Göring made an appeal asking to be shot as a soldier instead of hanged as a common criminal, but the court refused. Göring was one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party, which ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945. [143], Göring's body, as with those of the men who were executed, was displayed at the execution ground for the witnesses of the executions. "I only thought we would eliminate Jews from positions in big business and government", he claimed. A veteran World War I fighter pilot ace, he was a recipient of the Pour le Mérite ("The Blue Max"). [48] Some researchers, including William L. Shirer and Alan Bullock, are of the opinion that the Nazi Party itself was responsible for starting the fire. These paneled trucks had exhaust pipes reconfigured to pump poisonous carbon monoxide gas into sealed spaces, killing those locked within. Compensation for seized property would be low, if any was given at all. Jews would be segregated into ghettos or encouraged to emigrate, and their property would be seized in a programme of Aryanization. Milch stated it had been impossible to oppose Hitler or disobey his orders; to do so would likely have meant death for oneself and one's family. Göring's Luftwaffe played critical roles in the Battles of the Netherlands, Belgium and France in May 1940. Considering his request an act of treason, Hitler removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. Frick and head of the Schutzstaffel (SS) Heinrich Himmler hoped to create a unified police force for all of Germany, but Göring on 30 November 1933 established a Prussian police force, with Rudolf Diels at its head. [81] Later in the day, speaking to the Reichstag, Hitler designated Göring as his successor as Führer of all Germany, "If anything should befall me",[82] with Hess as the second alternate. Here he was weaned off dihydrocodeine (a mild morphine derivative)—he had been taking the equivalent of three or four grains (260 to 320 mg) of morphine a day—and was put on a strict diet; he lost 60 pounds (27 kg). [37] Hitler, who had written Mein Kampf while in prison, had been released in December 1924. Except at the very end of the war, there was never really any formally designated second in command. Marinus van der Lubbe—a Communist radical—was arrested and claimed sole responsibility for the fire. [122], By 26 April, the complex at Obersalzberg was under attack by the Allies, so Göring was moved to his castle at Mauterndorf. [68], In 1938, Göring was involved in the Blomberg–Fritsch Affair, which led to the resignations of the War Minister, Generalfeldmarschall Werner von Blomberg, and the army commander, General Werner von Fritsch. He was the leading war aggressor, both as political and as military leader; he was the director of the slave labour programme and the creator of the oppressive programme against the Jews and other races, at home and abroad. A Brief History. He sold a violin to pay for his train ticket home, and then took to his bed, feigning illness, until he was told he would not have to return. After spending most of 1919 living in Denmark, he moved to Sweden and joined Svensk Lufttrafik, a Swedish airline. Göring was one of the first to arrive on the scene. [16], On 7 July 1918, following the death of Wilhelm Reinhard, successor to Manfred von Richthofen, Göring was made commander of the "Flying Circus", Jagdgeschwader 1. [83] The Fallschirmjäger seized vital airfields in Norway and captured Fort Eben-Emael in Belgium. 0823933075 - Hermann Goring: Hitler's Second-in-command Holocaust Biographies by Ramen, Fred - AbeBooks [116], Göring feared being branded a traitor if he tried to take power, but also feared being accused of dereliction of duty if he did nothing. [56], When Hitler was named chancellor of Germany in January 1933, Göring was appointed as minister without portfolio, Minister of the Interior for Prussia, and Reich Commissioner of Aviation. [67] In July 1937, the Reichswerke Hermann Göring was established under state ownership – though led by Göring – with the aim of boosting steel production beyond the level which private enterprise could economically provide. In brief: Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942) was second in importance to Heinrich Himmler in the Nazi SS organization. Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler requesting his permission to assume leadership of the Reich. He said that, at a luncheon held on Hitler's birthday in 1942, Göring said, "The only one who really knows about the Reichstag is I, because I set it on fire! [132], On several occasions over the course of the trial, the prosecution showed films of the concentration camps and other atrocities. [85] During the 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony, Hitler promoted Göring to the rank of Reichsmarschall des Grossdeutschen Reiches (Reich Marshal of the Greater German Reich), a specially-created rank which made him senior to all field marshals in the military, including the Luftwaffe. [42] The Great Depression led to a disastrous downturn in the German economy, and in the 1930 election, the Nazi Party won 6,409,600 votes and 107 seats. [117] He was also motivated by fears that his rival, Martin Bormann, would seize power upon Hitler's death and would have him killed as a traitor. [149], Göring was appointed Reich Master of the Hunt in 1933 and Master of the German Forests in 1934. Acting as mobile killing units, they conducted shooting operations aimed at annihilating entire Jewish communities. Generalfeldmarschall Erhard Milch told Speer that similar donations were required out of the Air Ministry's general fund. [107] German civilians blamed Göring for his failure to protect the homeland. With this in mind, Göring sent a carefully worded telegram asking Hitler for permission to take over as the leader of Germany, stressing that he would be acting as Hitler's deputy. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Other famous Nazi generals include Joseph Goebbels and Heinrich Himmler. For other uses, see, German Nazi war criminal, politician and military leader, Articles and topics related to Hermann Göring, National Socialist German Students' League (NSDStB), National Socialist League of the Reich for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists (KGRNS), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), The swastika was a badge which the count and some friends had adopted at school, and he adopted it as a family emblem. The vast majority of the victims were Polish Jews, although German, Austrian, Czech, Dutch, French, Yugoslav, and Greek Jews also died in the Reinhard killing centers. Hermann Göring: Hitler's Second-in-Command Hermann Göring is best known for his assistance to Adolf Hitler in World War II and the Holocaust. Göring did not want Fritsch to be appointed to that position and thus be his superior. Though some airlifts were able to get through, the amount of supplies delivered never exceeded 120 tons per day. [116], OKW operations chief Alfred Jodl was present for Hitler's rant, and notified Göring's chief of staff, Karl Koller, at a meeting a few hours later. The award reduced him to tears.[163]. The force was called the Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police)… [160] Armaments minister Albert Speer recalled that guests brought expensive gifts such as gold bars, Dutch cigars, and valuable artwork. The second-in-command of the Shutzstaffel (SS) and while Hitler ordered the Holocaust, and Himmler planned it, this guy actually organized it. Hácha then agreed to sign a communique accepting the German occupation of the remainder of Bohemia and Moravia. The SS and police often did not have sufficient manpower to carry out these operations, so they were assisted whenever necessary by local auxiliaries whom they recruited and by units of the German armed forces. He was discovered and sentenced to three weeks' confinement to barracks, but the sentence was never carried out. Göring duly resigned. [46], The Nazis took advantage of the fire to advance their own political aims. [118], The telegram was intercepted by Bormann, who convinced Hitler that Göring was a traitor. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW Hitler gave Himmler broad authority to physically eliminate any perceived threats to permanent German rule. By targeting oil refineries and rail communications, Allied bombers crippled the German war effort by late 1944. The Nazi Party was made legal in Austria to gain a power base, and a referendum on reunification was scheduled for March. I made him the head of my SA. [9] He continued to enjoy war games, pretending to lay siege to the castle Veldenstein and studying Teutonic legends and sagas. Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich plotted with Göring to use the Gestapo and SS to crush the SA. For his birthday in 1944, Speer gave Göring an oversize marble bust of Hitler. He bypassed the economics ministry in his policy-making decisions, to the chagrin of Hjalmar Schacht, the minister in charge. [73] Chamberlain and Hitler had a series of meetings that led to the signing of the Munich Agreement (29 September 1938), which turned over control of the Sudetenland to Germany. [77] In Britain and the United States, some viewed Göring as more acceptable than the other Nazis and as a possible mediator between the western democracies and Hitler.
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